The population of Uganda is around 45.85 million people (2021).

Official language

Swahili and English are the official languages of Uganda.

Languages Spoken

Although Swahili and English are Uganda’s official languages, there are over 40 languages spoken in total. The most widely spoken indigenous languages in Uganda are Luganda, followed by Runyankole-Rukiga, Ateso, Lusoga and Acholi. Other minority languages include Lugbara, Lango, Alur, Kakwa, Arabic, Hindi and Gujarati, among others.


Uganda has a diverse religious landscape. The majority of Ugandans are Christians (95.5%), with various Protestant denominations as the largest religious group. The Catholic Church is also present in Uganda, and there are significant numbers of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church and the New Apostolic Church. In addition to Christianity, there are also smaller communities of Muslims, Hindus, Baha'is and members of indigenous African religions. There are also some people who do not affiliate with any religion.

National Holiday

Uganda’s National Day is celebrated on October 9th and honours independence from the UK on this day in 1962.

Holiday Schedule

January 1: New Year’s Day

January 26: NRM Liberation Day

February 16: Archbishop Janani Luwum Day

March 8: International Women’s Day

Late March to Early April: Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday

May 1: Labour Day

June 3: Uganda Martyrs’ Day

June 9: National Heroes’ Day

October 9: Independence Day

December 25: Christmas Day

December 26: Boxing Day

1 Shawwal: Eid al-Fitr

10 Dhu al-Hijjah: Eid al-Adha


Uganda's history dates back to the pre-colonial era when the region was inhabited by various ethnic groups. One of the most powerful kingdoms was the Buganda Kingdom, which was located in present-day central Uganda. The kingdom was ruled by a Kabaka (king) and its economy was based on agriculture, with the cultivation of crops such as bananas, cassava and millet. Other important kingdoms in the region included the Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom in present-day western Uganda, the Toro Kingdom in the southwest and the Ankole Kingdom in the south. In the late 19th century, Uganda became a British territory; it remained under British colonial rule until 1962, when it gained independence. During the colonial period, Uganda's economy was based on agriculture, with products like coffee, cotton and tea becoming major exports. However, the British also imposed harsh policies, including forced labour and the seizure of land, which caused resentment among the local population. After gaining independence, Uganda experienced political instability, with various coups and changes in government. In 1971, Idi Amin seized power in a military coup and ruled the country with an iron fist, unleashing a reign of terror that lasted until 1979. In 1980, democratic elections were held and Milton Obote was elected president. However, his government was plagued by corruption and human rights issues, and he was overthrown in another coup in 1985. The years that followed were marked by a period of civil war and violence, with the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) insurgency causing widespread devastation in northern Uganda. The conflict, which lasted over two decades, resulted in the displacement of millions of people and thousands of deaths. In 1996, Yoweri Museveni was elected president in democratic elections and has remained in power since then. Under Museveni's leadership, Uganda has experienced significant economic growth.


Uganda is a presidential representative democratic republic, with the President serving as both the head of state and the head of government. The Constitution of Uganda, adopted in 1995, provides for a separation of power among the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government. The executive branch is headed by the President, who is elected to a five-year term through a national election. The President appoints the Vice President and Cabinet ministers, who are responsible for the day-to-day management of the government. The legislative branch consists of the unicameral Parliament, which is made up of the National Assembly and the President. The National Assembly has 426 members; 353 of whom are directly elected from constituencies, while 75 are appointed by special interest groups, including women, youth and workers. The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court, which is the highest court in the country. The judiciary is independent of the other branches of government, with judges appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission.

In terms of policy, the Ugandan government has focused on promoting economic growth, reducing poverty, and improving access to healthcare and education. The government has also implemented policies aimed at improving the business environment and attracting foreign investment. However, Uganda has faced challenges in areas such as corruption, human rights abuses and political instability, with critics arguing that the government has not done enough to address these issues. Additionally, there have been concerns about restrictions on freedom of speech and assembly, as well as the government's treatment of opposition parties and journalists.

Food and Drink

Uganda's cuisine is diverse and has been influenced by the country's many ethnic groups and neighbouring countries. Ugandan food is generally based on starchy staples such as maize, cassava and sweet potatoes, which are served with a variety of sauces, meats and vegetables. Here are some of the most popular foods in Uganda:

  • Matooke is a type of green banana that is cooked and mashed to make a starchy staple food. It is often served with a sauce made from peanuts, meat or vegetables
  • Posho is a type of maize flour that is cooked with water to make a thick porridge. It is delicious with beans, vegetables or meat
  • Chapatis are a type of flatbread, similar to Indian naan. It is made with wheat flour and best tucked into with stew or curry
  • Rolex is a popular street food in Uganda, which consists of a rolled-up omelette wrapped in a chapati
  • Groundnut sauce is a sauce made from ground peanuts and is tasty when eaten with matooke or posho

In terms of drinks, tea and coffee are popular, and Uganda is known for producing high-quality coffee beans. Uganda also boasts a delicious variety of fruit juices, including mango, passion fruit and pineapple – the perfect accompaniment to a traditional Ugandan breakfast. Local beers, such as Nile Special and Bell Lager, are popular thirst-quenchers, as well as traditional brews made from bananas or millet. The country also boasts a booming wine industry, with vineyards located in the western part of the country.

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